Knowledge and Awareness of Use of Personal Protective Equipment among Dental Practitioners Before and During Covid-19 Pandemic

KNOWLEDGE AND AWARENESS OF USE OF PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENTS AMONG DENTAL PRACTITONERS BEFORE AND DURING COVID-19 PANDEMIC Santhosh Rahul K, Joy Aleesha, Mathew Josey, George Liza MDS, Paul Sinju, Yacob Jeason Paul Department of Dept. of Conservative dentistry & Endodontics, Annoor dental college & hospital, Muvattupuzha Running title – PPE knowledge before and after Covid 19 pandemic Received: 01-03-2023 Revised: 06-03-2023 Accepted: 08-03-2023 Address for correspondence: Dr. Aleesha Joy, Assistant professor, Dept. of Conservative dentistry & Endodontics, Annoor dental college & hospital, Muvattupuzha, Kerala E-mail: aleeshajoy.1991@gmail.com This is an open access journal, and articles are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial ShareAlike 4.0 license, which allows others to remix, tweak, and build upon the work non-commercially, as long as appropriate credit is given and the new creations are licensed under the identical terms How to cite this article: Santhosh R K, Joy A, Mathew J, George L, Paul S, Yacob J P. Knowledge and awareness of use of personal protective equipments among dental practitoners before and during covid-19 pandemic J Oral Biomed Sci 2023; 2: Abstract Introduction: The pandemic made the dentist to adjust to the new changes to deal with COVID-19 outbreak. With increasing awareness regarding emerging viral diseases dental practitioners have made positive changes regrading personal protection. Aim: To evaluate knowledge and awareness on use of personal protection equipment’s among dental practitioners before and during covid-19 pandemic. Methodology: Across-sectional study was conducted using an online survey. Dental practitioners from Kerala were selected for the survey. Questionnaire included questions about the difference they experienced by using personal protection equipment’s which they did not follow before the pandemic and are they finding it important and will they be continuing the practice after the pandemic. And the data obtained was analyzed statistically. Results: The result shows there is a massive increase in use of N95 mask during the pandemic 146 (59.6%) than before the pandemic where it was 12 (4.9%), as N95 masks were mandatory during the pandemic. Also, there is increases in usage of double gloves during the pandemic from 5 (2.0%) to 51 (20.8%). The usage of personal protective equipment before and during COVID-19 shows there is massive increases in the usage of PPE kit among the practitioners 146 (59.6%) from 11 (4.5%) before COVID. Conclusion: It was found that the majority of dental practitioners had adequate knowledge regarding the use of personal protective equipment and hygiene practices. Although the percentage of respondents with inadequate knowledge and practice requires attention and adequate measures should be taken to improve their awareness on use of PPE and hygiene practices. Keywords: Personal protection equipment, Covid-19, N-95 masks

By |2023-10-21T09:21:43+05:30June 25, 2023|Comments Off on Knowledge and Awareness of Use of Personal Protective Equipment among Dental Practitioners Before and During Covid-19 Pandemic

Prevalence of Post-Covid Syndrome Among Affected Individuals– A Cross Sectional Study

Background: Post-COVID conditions are a wide range of new, returning, or ongoing health problems people may experience four or more weeks after initial infection with COVID-19 which has shown to affect the quality of life of affected individuals Methodology: A cross- sectional study was conducted between 1st September 2021, and 28th February 2022 among 500 patients who visited Family Health Centre, Mazhuvannur, Kerala for various treatments who were already diagnosed with acute covid infection preceding 6 weeks. Results: Out of the 500 participants included in the study, 296 reported at least one post- COVID symptom. The mean age was 47.46 ± 17.20 (18–90) in which 42.57% were male and 57.43% were female. Among the 89.15 % vaccinated individuals, 55.89% availed vaccination prior to infection and 44.11 % post infection.. Most prevalent post–COVID symptoms reported were fatigue (31%), dizziness on standing (29.6%), symptoms that get worse after physical activity (25%), cough (21.4%), headache (13.4%). Out of 296 individuals, 174 patients (69.7 %) underwent treatment for post- COVID symptoms and 121 (59.1%) reported improvement on receiving treatment. Conclusion: Post COVID syndrome affects the quality of life of individuals. In the present study, it is concluded that age, habits (smoking, tobacco chewing, alcoholism) and co-morbid diseases are critical risk factor for the development of post-COVID syndrome and it also influences the post-COVID treatment outcome. Keywords - Post COVID syndrome, COVID 19

By |2023-10-27T13:26:44+05:30June 19, 2023|Comments Off on Prevalence of Post-Covid Syndrome Among Affected Individuals– A Cross Sectional Study

Immunohistochemical Markers of Epithelial – Mesenchymal Transition in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Systematic Review

Objective: The aim of this systematic review was to explore the prognostic significance of immunohistochemical markers of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Methods: PubMed, EMBASE, and Scopus databases were thoroughly searched using various combinations of keywords, and Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines were followed for analysis. Results: Database search yielded a total of 45 articles, out of which 13 articles were selected based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. A total of 946 oral squamous cell carcinoma samples were evaluated for various immunohistochemical markers. The most commonly studied immunohistochemical marker of EMT was E-Cadherin followed by Beta-catenin, CD44, N-Cadherin, EMA, vimentin, SMA, ALDH1, cyclin D1, APC, Collagen IV and MMP 9.  A panel of transcription factors such as TWIST1, SNAI1/2, ZEB1, and ZEB2 and other genes intimately related to EMT (CDH1 and LAMC2) at the invasive tumor front of OSCC tissues were also studied. Conclusion:  The use of biomarkers like E-cadherin, EMA, and SMA might be a valuable tool for predicting patient outcomes and therapy. OSCC tissues had high levels of EMT phenotype as compared with the normal oral mucosa. This phenotype was characterized by reduced E-cadherin and β-catenin expression and overexpression of N-cadherin. CD44 immunoexpression was a significant predictor of lymph node metastasis, while ALDH1 high immunostaining was associated with angiolymphatic invasion. Co-expression of TWIST1 and ZEB2 was significantly prevalent in OSCC patients with poorer overall survival, especially in patients with no lymph node metastasis. The Snail family of zinc-finger transcription factors especially SNAI1/2 was significantly overexpressed in OSCC. The prognostic value of these biomarkers is proven and can be employed for evolving new therapeutic modalities. Keywords:  immunohistochemistry, oral squamous cell carcinoma, epithelial-mesenchymal transition

By |2023-10-27T13:30:52+05:30June 29, 2023|Comments Off on Immunohistochemical Markers of Epithelial – Mesenchymal Transition in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Systematic Review

Evaluation of Time Taken for Implementation and Accomplishment of Covid 19 Vaccination in India

Introduction: The study was done to assess whether a significant proportion of population got immunized in a fair amount of time compared to that of vaccination strategies of Singapore, and the results will be useful in the event of a future pandemic breakout. Objectives: To evaluate time taken for implementation of covid 19 vaccination in India and to compare current vaccination approach in India with that of Singapore’s. Methodology: The information was taken from Co-win app that tracks real time COVID-19 vaccination administration in India and was evaluated in total and also on the basis of age, sex and state basis over a period of one year. The website of Ministry of Health, Singapore, was used to collect data regarding the number of individuals immunised in Singapore. Result: 57.2% and 86.2% of the population has been fully vaccinated in India and Singapore respectively. Conclusion: Even though population of India is very large, more than half of them are fully vaccinated which is comparable to the percentage of immunisation achieved in a very less populated country like Singapore within a year. Keywords: COVID -19, immunization, vaccination in India

By |2023-05-12T11:43:01+05:30April 28, 2023|Comments Off on Evaluation of Time Taken for Implementation and Accomplishment of Covid 19 Vaccination in India

Comparison of Calretinin Expression in Ameloblastoma, Odontogenic Keratocyst and Oral Epithelial Dysplasia: An Immunohistochemical Study

Introduction: Oral epithelial dysplasia is a potentially precancerous lesion diagnosed histologically. While the risk of progression is associated with histological grade, it is currently impossible to predict accurately which lesions will progress. More accurate markers predicting progression to cancer would enable the targeting of these lesions for more aggressive treatment and closer follow-up. Calretinin is a calcium-binding protein involved in calcium signaling with a wide spread distribution in normal and neoplastic tissues. It is a well-established marker for epithelial mesothelioma and ameloblastoma and expression has been described increasingly in other neoplasms. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the expression of calretinin in oral epithelial dysplasia and its possible specificity as an immunohistochemical marker in grading of dysplasia. Methodology: Fifteen cases of oral epithelial dysplasia, of which five were mild dysplasia, five moderate and other five of severe dysplasia, two cases each of acanthomatous ameloblastoma, KCOT, lipoma and normal epithelium were studied. Sections were immunohistochemically stained with calretinin antiserum using a standard avidin±biotinylated peroxidase complex method. The slides were analyzed for positivity to the marker and its varying expression through the three grades of dysplasia. Results: Negative staining was seen in 15 cases of oral epithelial dysplasia while the staining was positive and of moderate intensity in acanthomatous ameloblastoma restricted to the stellate reticulum-like epithelium especially in areas of squamous metaplasia. The other cases gave a negative effect on immnunohistochemical staining by calretinin. Conclusion: The biological significance of calretinin expression in tumourogenesis and premalignancy is not known and its use as a distinctive, specific immunohistochemical marker for dysplastic cells remains to be confirmed Keywords: calretinin; oral epithelial dysplasia, ameloblastoma

By |2023-05-12T11:44:03+05:30April 27, 2023|Comments Off on Comparison of Calretinin Expression in Ameloblastoma, Odontogenic Keratocyst and Oral Epithelial Dysplasia: An Immunohistochemical Study

Assessment of Prevalence of Post-Vaccine Covid-19 Infection Among Dental Professionals and Students of Dental Colleges in Ernakulam District: a Cross Sectional Study.

Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of Covid-19 infection among all the immunized dental professionals and students in Ernakulam district of Kerala. Materials and Methods: A structured and validated questionnaire comprising of twelve questions was distributed to the students of five dental colleges in the Ernakulam district of Kerala. The questionnaire evaluated the vaccination status, dose and brand of vaccine received, duration of clinical practice, COVID -19 infection after vaccination, associated symptoms if any , among them.  Results: The dental students included 307 females and 105 males , majority of them had contracted the disease even after immunization. 43 % of them had mild symptoms .The differences observed were significant (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Among the immunized dental professionals and students ,our study found a lower frequency of Covid -19 infection with a considerable decline in Covid symptoms. Keywords: COVID -19, Immunization, Covishield , Dental professionals.

By |2023-02-04T15:10:07+05:30January 31, 2023|Comments Off on Assessment of Prevalence of Post-Vaccine Covid-19 Infection Among Dental Professionals and Students of Dental Colleges in Ernakulam District: a Cross Sectional Study.

Effect of Acute Water Immersion Stress on Immunity Markers of Albino Rats

Aim and objective: Stress can affect the immunity system through different physiological pathways and also alters the inflammatory markers. The current study has designed to evaluate the effect of acute water immersion stress on selected immunity markers on albino rats. Materials and methods: Twelve male albino rats were selected and examined. Rats were divided into two groups as control and experimental. Acute water immersion stress was induced in experimental group. Blood samples were collected and inspected for immunity markers. Results: All the markers showed marked changes in acute stress. Changes in CD4 and CD8 showed strong significant changes. Conclusion: The study reported the immunomodulatory effect of acute stress in albino rats. Keywords:  Acute stress, Albino rats, immunity markers

By |2023-02-02T23:19:02+05:30January 31, 2023|Comments Off on Effect of Acute Water Immersion Stress on Immunity Markers of Albino Rats

Analysis of keratinization in post-menopausal women and women of reproductive age using cytological smears –A preliminary study

Alterations in the sex hormones causes significant variation in gingival keratinization. The study is based on comparing the pattern of keratinization in post-menopausal women and women of reproductive age. The aim of this study is to evaluate and compare the pattern of keratinization in post-menopausal women and women of reproductive age using Papanicolaou stain. Sample collection was done. Papanicolaou staining procedure was carried out. Stained slides were viewed under microscope for the evaluation. The results were entered in SPSS software version 21. Comparing the cell differentiation types between the study groups and Comparison of cell differentiation types within the study groups were done. Alteration in sex hormones cause variation in gingival keratinization. Physiological levels of oestrogen and progesterone in pregnancy stimulates prostaglandin synthesis. Key words: Keratinization, post-menopausal women, cytology

By |2023-02-09T23:12:56+05:30August 13, 2022|Comments Off on Analysis of keratinization in post-menopausal women and women of reproductive age using cytological smears –A preliminary study

Knowledge, Attitude and Practices Regarding Pharmacological Methods of Tobacco Cessation among Dental Students and Dental Teaching Faculty in Ernakulam District, Kerala – a Questionnaire Study.

Background: Tobacco has been a worldwide public health threat and a cause of avoidable morbidity and mortality. Most people who use tobacco regularly are unable to quit because of nicotine’s addictive properties. Overcoming addiction is difficult, even though most users express a desire to reduce the use or stop. Tobacco cessation may require both pharmacologic and behavioural treatments. It is imperative that dental professionals need to have an appropriate knowledge regarding the pharmacological interventions of tobacco cessation, that will enable them to aid in patient education, counselling, prevention, diagnosis and treatment of associated conditions. Methodology: The study was a cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey. The target population was the clinical dental students, House surgeons, and teaching faculty. The questionnaire was divided into two parts. The first part consisted of questions on professional data – designation/year of study of respondents. The second part consisted of 16 questions to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practices regarding pharmacological interventions for tobacco cessation. Informed consent was obtained prior to distribution of questionnaires. Results: The study was conducted among a total of 392 participants that included 328 students/house surgeons and 64 faculty members. About 95% of the respondents were interested in helping their patient’s quit tobacco. Only 64.28% were aware of both pharmacological and non-pharmacological methods of tobacco cessation. About 72.95%, were aware of nicotine replacement therapy. About 35.2% of the respondents agreed that patients had sought their assistance in tobacco cessation. Over 97% believed that they need further training in pharmacological methods of tobacco cessation. Conclusion: The study attributes that the dental students, house surgeons and teaching faculty members who participated in the survey had a good attitude towards tobacco cessation interventions. The knowledge and practice components were relatively weaker. Key words: Tobacco use cessation, nicotine addiction, dentist’s role

By |2023-01-31T15:41:15+05:30January 31, 2023|Comments Off on Knowledge, Attitude and Practices Regarding Pharmacological Methods of Tobacco Cessation among Dental Students and Dental Teaching Faculty in Ernakulam District, Kerala – a Questionnaire Study.
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